Interact with your students by asking questions about the picture. You can add other questions to the checklist.
a- The picture represents a slave ship. ( Please, talk about slave trade.)
b- I think that the ship is in Africa, and it is going to America.
c- Geoge Washington, first U. S President ; July 1783: Independence Abraham Lincoln ( US President) ; 1861-1865 : American Civil War; Martin Luther King Jr 1963. One of the leaders of the Civil Rights movement;
August 1963, March of 200,000 people on Washington DC to demand racial equaliry. (Discuss further these points in class monitoring the discussion towards racial issues in the US.)
Act. Two (p.48)
a. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the Black American leaders of
the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ( The students can suggest other answers.)
b- He hoped/wished his children to be free from racial prejudice.
c- The author/Martin Luther King repeats words, phrases and ideas: “I have
a dream”, “one day”,”we’ll be able to”…
He uses an oratorical style in order to stimulate his audience; to get the
audience to feel the injustice of racial discrimination and segretation .
d- Yes, because it is full of hope. (The students can suggest other ideas.)
Act. Three (p.49)
The aim of this activity is to develop the students’ dictionary skills.
Address: speech or talk to an audience.
Can: ability or capacity to do something
Spiritual: a religious song as sung by Negroes in the USA.
Choice of words from the speech: character n. 1- ( of a person, community, race,…etc) mental or moral qualities that make one person ,race, etc different from others; 2- moral strength; 3-person who is well known; 4- letter, mark used in a system of writing or printing.
Day; 4th, 3839
WRITE IT OUT ( p.50)
Before assigning the writing activity to your students, first go through the tip box .Then brainstorm the age limits . The students will take the jottings that you will make on the board to write their speech/address. Martin Luther King’s address will be taken as a model.
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ? (p.52)
Skills check (p.52)
TEXT FOUR (p.57) AMERICAN FRIENDS
QUESTION ONE ( Key: The correct answer is D.)
What is the main idea of this passage/song? Circle the correct answer.
A.An American soldier is fighting for the Vietnam war.
B.The Mexican-American war
C. Thoreau and Mark Twain are ashamed of America.
D .A young man refuses to fight for American wars.
QUESTION TWO ( Key: Statements A. and C. are false.)
Circle true or false. When false, give the correct information.
A. The young man attended the college graduation. T. F.
B. He is ashamed of being American. T. F.
C. He marched against the Vietnam war at twenty. T. F.
In no more than 20 lines, say why the author does not like wars.
Go through the preview to let the students be aware of what they will learn in the unit. Brainstorm a checklist of projects compatible with the new language items and skills covered by the unit, and let them discuss and choose the project they would like to materialise. Again, it is not recommended to let the students do the same project year after year.
THINK IT OVER (p.59)
Get the students interact about the stamps. What does each of them represent/show? When was the stamp issued? On which occasion was it issued ? ...The interaction will serve as an introduction to the topic of the unit.
WORDS TO SAY(p.59)
The words in the checklist are related to the topic of the unit. The emphasis is on the pronunciation of consonants. Make sure the students know how to pronounce each of them.
DISCOVERING LANGUAGE (pp.60-63)
BEFORE YOU READ (p.60)
The students will interact about the map using their background knowledge.
1- The map represents Southern America.
2- The area in green stands for the Amazon Forest.
3- It is situated between Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia.
4- The line in question is that of the equator.
5- The equatorial climate is hot and humid.
AS YOU READ (p.60)
The students will the check the answers they have not checked in the Before-you-read activity.
a-.There is more than a decade of global fossil fuel emissions of carbon
dioxide stored in the Amazon Forest trees.
b- The Amazon basin ecosystem has been protected from threats because of its isolation.
c- It is one of the world’s greatest conservation challenges because it is no
longer isolated. ( Students will give one or two justifications from the text.)
AFTER READING (p.61)
1- a- Timber companies
b-The Brazilian government
These sentences are in the passive voice because the subjects of the verbs
are not really the doers/agents of the actions i.e.,the focus is on the actions
rather than on the performers/ doers (of the actions).
2-a- Timber companies fell 18.000km2 of forest trees
b-The Brazilian government built new roads throughout the 1960’s and 1970s.
3- The sentences that give attention to the action itself are the sentences from the reading text; The students’ sentences are in the active. They put emphasis on the doers/performers of the actions.
4- The writer has inverted the structure by foregrounding the action (putting it first in the sentence structure) and putting the real performers/doers of the action at the end of the sentence.
5- a-C ; b-D; c-B; d-A
6- No, it is not always necessary to use by in passive sentences. We use by when we want to draw attention to the doer of the action.
Make sure your students go through the Grammar Reference n°10 pp.199-200 to check their answers.
Act. One (p. 62)
The Exxon Valdez was wrecked just off the coast of Alaska in 1986.
It was carrying a huge cargo of oil. The oil spilled out, and it was washed onto the beach by the wind. The water was polluted. The beach was damaged . The fishing industry was ruined. Hotels and restaurants were closed.
Use the weak forms of the auxiliaries was and were unless indicated otherwise in the answer key below. The focus in this activity is on the pronunciation of the auxiliary was/were in the passive.
Speaker A. What happened to the Exxon Valdez?
Speaker B. It was wrecked off the coast of California and the oil spilled out.
Speaker A. The oil was washed out onto the beach?
Speaker B. Yes, it was (Use the strong form of the auxiliary.).
It was spread out by the winds.
Speaker A. Was the fish poisoned?
Speaker B. Yes, they were ( Use the strong form.). They suffocated for lack of oxygen.
Act. Three (p.
Students will act out the dialogue once you have simulated it .
a. Fumes from automobile exhaust pipes cause air pollution.
Air pollution is caused by fumes from automobile exhaust pipes.
b. Water pollution will deplete many water zones of their oxygen soon.
Many water zones will be depleted of their oxygen by pollution soon.
c. The Algerian government will ban cigarette smoking next year.
Cigarette smoking will be banned by the Algerian government next year.
d. The Post and Telecommunication Ministry has already issued a lot of
environmental stamps. A lot of environmental stamps have already been issued by the Post and Telecommunication Ministry
e. We haven’t imposed drastic limits on gas emissions and noise yet.
No drastic limits have been imposed on gas emissions yet.
WRITE IT RIGHT ( p.63)
Explain what a press release is to your students . Then brainstorm the topic before we set them to task.
We make our sincere apologies for the damage caused by the wreck of the Exxon Valdez yesterday. Oil will be recuperated with special machines and the spoilt beaches will be cleaned. Marine life will be restored; birds will be washed out. We promise that 2000 workers will be recruited soon. Hotel workers will be employed by the company and the tourist industry will be compensated for its loss. ... (Students can add examples of their own;)
SAY IT LOUD AND CLEAR (p.64)
Act. One (p.64)
The activity illustrates list intonation. We use a falling intonation when we end the listing and a rising intonation when we are still in the process of doing so.
There are five types of alternative energies (intonation goes down): solar (rising intonation), wind (rising intonation), biomass (rising intonation), and hydroelectric (falling intonation) . All of them can be produced in our country because we have the following natural resources (falling intonation): the wind (rising intonation), the sun (rising intonation), the mountains (rising intonation) …
However, solar energy is by far the most viable (falling intonation). It is cheaper (rising intonation), safer(rising intonation) and less polluting falling intonation). SONELGAZ has already built power plants in Biskra(rising intonation), Djelfa(rising intonation), Hassi Rmel (rising intonation)and other localities in the South of Algeria (falling intonation).
Act. Two (p.64)
Discuss with your students and try to single out the sounds which pose pronunciation problems. Then try to find to elaborate a remedial work for these problem sounds.
The problem sounds given in the activity are the most common ones (for Algerian speakers of English). Elaborate another exercise to illustrate other problem sounds if there are any other ones that your students meet and proceed to remedial work.
KEY: Use a dictionary which contain phonetic transcriptions.
1. WORKING WITH WORDS (p.64)
Act. One (p.64)
It is recommended to use the words that your students should look up in dictionary in context.
The strategies for checking difficult vocabulary are as follows. First, the students will resort to a dictionary only once s/he can’t guess the meaning of the difficult words from context. For this, s/he needs to identify the category of the words, see whether there are any synonyms, antonyms, or paraphrases of these difficult words. Once s/he is sure that she can’t do otherwise than checking
a dictionary for understanding the meaning of the difficult words that she has singed out from the text, she will open the dictionary at the page where the word is listed. In doing so, s/he will pay attention to the alphabetical order. (Cf; For further information about dictionary skills, check the Key to Entries in Oxford Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English, pp. XIV - XVIII)
Act. Three (p.65)
B: compound/complex word
C: figurative language
E: transitive verb
I: uncountable noun
J: colloquial English
K: American English
L: colloquial English
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (pp.66-68)
Act.One (p. 66)
Interact with the students and make them identify and interpret the photosynthesis process. Then they will complete the blanks with the verbs in the yellow box.
Act. Two (p. 66)
The students will check their answers to activity one.
a- Carbon dioxide is derived from the air.
b- Water is drawn from the soil.
c- Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll.
d- Oxygen is released from plants and food.
e- Sugar is produced during photosythesis.
Act. Three (p.66)
Plants must be protected. /m.sbi
They can’t be replaced by man-made converters . /k.¸mb./
They shouldn’t be cut down. /©ªmbi
Brainstorm the topic with your students before they describe the process in question.
YOUR TURN (p.67)
Act. One (p.67)
Make sure your students pronounce the modals in the correct way.
a. We mustn’t hunt animals in danger of extinction.
Animals in danger of extinction mustn’t be hunted.
b. We shouldn’t throw recyclable objects.
Recylable objects shouldn’t be thrown away.
c. We should stop desertification.
Desertification should be stopped.
d. We can divide pollution into four types.
Pollution can be divided into four types.
e. We may group alternative energies in five categories: wind, solar, biomass and hydro-electric .
Alternative energies may be grouped in five categories: ...
f. We must protect our human resources. Human resources must be protected.
TIP BOX (p.67)
Go through the tip box before you move on to the activity in the Write it up rubric.
WRITE IT UP (p.68)
Interact with the students using the picture. The students will identify the different parts of the solar home and their functions. Explain the difficult vocabulary if necessary.
Ladies and gentlemen....
During winter, ouside air is captured by warm glass roof panels. Then,
warm air is forced down into a water tank by an air handling unit.
Next, the water in the tank is heated and greater quantities of warm water
air are released. The hot air is then sent down a duct to the crawlspace in
under-floor area. After that, warm water rises through floor registers to the
living space. Some of the heated air is absorbed by concrete slabs . It is
released at night. This process is reversed during summer.
READING AND WRITING ( 69-71)
Act. One (p. 69)
Elicit the students’ responses to the pictures. Then let them choose what they consider as the right answers to the questions attached to the pictures. Don’t check their interpretations at this stage.
Act. Two (p.69)
The students will check their answers to the questions in activity one.
1- b -2- c -3- c
Act. Three (p.70)
easily made angry= irritability (noun)
is confirmed= is borne out (verb)
related to the brain= mental (adjective)
Act. Four (p.70)
The best title is Another Kind of Pollution. Noise pollution has not been recognized as such until recently.
Act. Five (p.70)
a- A sentence which focuses on the general idea:
e.g., For a long time, noise has been known to cause sleeplessness and
irritability, and now other studies are linking it to a wide range of mental
and physical disturbances.
b- A sentence which gives details to support/ develop the general idea:
e.g., In Los Angeles, researchers have found that people living near the
c- A sentence which provides a smooth transition from one idea to
e.g., In the opinion of many hearing specialists, time is running out.
d- A sentence which supports the new idea:
e.g., The number of mental diseases will be multiplied by two or three…
e- A sentence which logically concludes the ideas discussed in the
e.g., This health alert against……
WRITE IT OUT ( p.71)
A sentence is missing in the list of scrambled sentences. Give it to the students before you start brainstorming the topic related to the sentences. The sentence runs as follows : At least two great civilizations (establish) there.
a. Throughout the world, deserts are created because pastures near arid lands heavily are grazed and trampled.
b. Around towns, adjacent forest belts are denuded by people in their search for firewood.
c. More productive plants are introduced into semi-arid lands. As a result, indigenous plants necessary for the maintenance of the soil are nudged out.
d. Many people think that desertification is caused only by a change in climate, but the truth is that deserts are provoked by human actions.
e. Because of intensive production of cash crops like cotton and groundnuts, soil nutrients are dissipated and the topsoil is eroded by wind and water.
f. A long time ago, history was made in the deserts.
g. Today, about 140 million people are threatened by the spread of the desert caused through the interaction of climatic fluctuations and man’s abuse of his environment.
h. Desertification must be stopped now, otherwise deserts will be transformed into a curse for man soon.
i. These civilizations were built in deserts because people knew how to live in harmony with nature.
k. At least two great civilizations were established there.
Act. Two (p.71)
The students will write the whole paragraph on their portfolios indicating the various functions of the sentences.
1. f - 2. k - 3-i 4. g - 5. d - 6.a - 7.c - 8. e - 9.b - 10.h
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ? (p.73)
Skills check (p.73)
TEXT FIVE (p.75) ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MODERN TIMES
Choose the one word that best keeps the meaning of the origina